Solar panel is an assembly of photo-voltaic cells mounted in a framework for installation. Solar panels use sunlight as a source of energy to generate direct current electricity. A collection of PV modules is called a PV panel, and a system of PV panels is called an array. Arrays of a photovoltaic system supply solar electricity to electrical equipment.
There are different type of Solar Panels such as Mono, Poly, Bifacial, BIPV, Flexible, etc. Monocrystalline cells are usually more efficient, but more expensive to manufacture, whereas polycrystalline cells can be produced more cost-effective, but have a slightly lower efficiency. Ultimately, it depends on the space on your roof which technology is most beneficial for you. If space is limited, you can achieve the highest power generator line with monocrystalline modules. A solar module can range in energy production from 100-500 Watts of DC electricity. The higher wattage output, the more energy production per solar module. A solar array of modules consisting of higher energy-producing solar modules will, therefore, produce more electricity in less space than an array of lower producing modules. However, the cost is higher for greater producing modules.
A solar charge controller is a solar-powered voltage and current regulator. They are used to regulate power input from PV arrays to deliver optimal power output to run electrical loads and charge batteries. There are two types of Charge controllers, viz. PWM (pulse-width modulation) and MPPT (maximum power point tracking) Charge Controller. The main difference between PWM and MPPT charge control devices is that the MPPT devices are more efficient. MPPT charge control devices have 30 % more efficient in charge efficiency according to PWM type. Panel voltage and battery voltage should be matched in PWM systems.
Solar batteries are deep cycle batteries that provide power to solar systems and other re-newable energy sources. A deep cycle battery is capable of surviving prolonged, repeated and deep discharges which are typical in renewable energy systems.
Unlike other batteries, solar batteries are designed to be unloaded and reloaded repeatedly. To maintain solar batteries in good condition and prolong their lifespan, manufacturers recommend limiting daily depth of discharge to 20%. Do not allow the type of solar batteries to reach a daily depth of discharge of more than 50%. Monitoring solar batteries helps to have a better maintenance and provides statistics about the general health functioning of the batteries.
Type of Batteries
An inverter is one of the most important pieces of equipment in a solar energy system. It's a device that converts direct current (DC) electricity, which solar panel generates, to alternating current (AC) electricity, which electrical grid uses. A home UPS or home inverter take the DC power from the batteries and convert it to AC power used by appliances. A solar inverter also does the same if it is an “Off Grid” solar power system. In case of “Grid Connected” the DC power is from the solar panels and AC power is given to the grid